There are 3 common types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC):
Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung
Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke from other people (secondhand smoke) also raises your risk of lung cancer. But some people who have never smoked do develop lung cancer.
Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between smoking marijuana and developing lung cancer.
Constant exposure to high levels of air pollution and drinking water that has a high level of arsenic can increase your risk of lung cancer. A history of radiation therapy to the lungs can also increase risk.
Working with or near cancer-causing chemicals or materials can also increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Such chemicals include:
Symptoms may include:
Early lung cancer may not cause any symptoms.
Other symptoms that may be due to NSCLC, often in the late stages:
These symptoms can be due to other, less serious conditions. It is important to talk to your health care provider if you have symptoms.
The doctor will perform a physical exam and ask about your medical history. You will be asked if you smoke, and if so, how much you smoke and for how long you have smoked. You will also be asked about other things that may have put you at risk of lung cancer, such as exposure to certain chemicals.
When listening to your chest with a stethoscope, the doctor may hear fluid around the lungs or areas where the lung has partially collapsed. This may suggest cancer.
Tests that may be done to diagnose lung cancer or see if it has spread include:
In most cases, a piece of tissue is removed from your lungs for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy. There are several ways to do this:
If the biopsy shows cancer, more imaging tests are done to find out the stage of the cancer. Stage means how big the tumor is and how far it has spread. NSCLC is divided into 5 stages:
There are many different types of treatment for NSCLC. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer.
Surgery is the common treatment for NSCLC that has not spread beyond nearby lymph nodes. The surgeon may remove:
Some patients need chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells and stop new cells from growing. Treatment may be done in the following ways:
Controlling symptoms and preventing complications during and after chemotherapy is an important part of care.
Radiation therapy can be used with chemotherapy if surgery is not possible. Radiation therapy uses powerful x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiation may be used to:
Controlling symptoms during and after radiation to the chest is an important part of care.
The following treatments are mostly used to relieve symptoms caused by NSCLC:
You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.
The outlook varies. Most often, NSCLC grows slowly. In some cases, it can grow and spread quickly and cause rapid death. The cancer may spread to other parts of the body, including the bone, liver, small intestine, and brain.
Chemotherapy has been shown to prolong life and improve the quality of life in some patients with stage IV NSCLC.
Cure rates are related to the stage of disease and whether you are able to have surgery.
Call your provider if you have symptoms of lung cancer, particularly if you smoke.
If you smoke, now is the time to quit. If you are having trouble quitting, talk with your doctor. There are many methods to help you quit, from support groups to prescription medicines. Also, try to avoid secondhand smoke.
If you smoke or used to smoke, talk with your doctor about getting screened for lung cancer. To get screened, you need to have a CT scan of the chest.
Ettinger DS, Wood DE, Akerley W, et al. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Non-small cell lung cancer, Version 6.2015. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2015;13(5):515-524. PMID: 25964637 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964637.
Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 72.
Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for lung cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(5):330-338. PMID: 24378917 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24378917.
National Cancer Institute. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated July 7, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/lung/hp/non-small-cell-lung-treatment-pdq. Accessed August 31, 2016.
Silvestri GA, Pastis NJ, Tanner NT, Jett JR. Clinical aspects of lung cancer. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 53.
Reviewed By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.